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1851 Surnames

This is a list of all the surnames of people resident in Cranshaws and Longformacus Parishes in 1851:

The Old Bridge in LongformacusAllan, Anderson, Atchison
Bell, Bertram, Black, Blackbell, Blythe, Bolton, Brockie, Brokie, Brown, Buckham, Burton
Cairns, Cameron, Chapman, Christison, Cormack, Cowe, Craig, Craik, Craise, Cribbs, Crosbie, Currie
Dale, Darling, Deans, Denholm, Dods, Dougherty, Douglas, Dudgeon, Duncan, Dunn
Edgar
Ferguson, Fitzsimmons, Fleming, Foggo, Forbes, Forsythe, Fortune
Gillie, Gray, Greive
Hall, Hamilton, Hastie, Henderson, Hislop, Hood, Houliston, Hyslop
Ingles
Johnston
Keddie, Kelly, Kilpatrick, King, Kirk, Knox
Laidlaw, Lauder, Laurence, Laurie, Lawson, Logan, Lowrie, Luke, Lunam
Mack, MacKay, Matthew, Mauchlin, McAdam, McLauchlen, McLiesh, McOrvel, Miller, Mitchel, Moffat, Moscrip
Nickel, Niel, Nisbet
Ovens, Owens
Paterson; Phin; Pringle; Purves;
Ramsay; Rankin; Rathie; Redpath;Richardson; Robertson; Robinson; Rodger;
Scott; Sibbald; Simpson; Sinclair; Skene; Sligo; Smeaton; Smith; Sommers; Spratt; Stobie; Storey; Swan;
Tait; Thomson; Turner;
Usher; Uterson;
Virtue;
Walterson; Wanless; Weir; Whitlaw; Wilson; Wood;
Young

Population Through Time

The population of the Cranshaws, Ellemford & Longformacus Community Council area is just below 300 people. Below are the figures for the same area which showed that it has halved since it's peak around the turn of the 19th century.


Longformacus - the parish's population through time:The Bridge Longformacus
• 1755 - 399
• 1791 - 452
• 1801 - 406
• 1811 - 444
• 1821 - 402
• 1831 - 425
• 1861 – 448
• 1871 - 452
• 1881 - 385
Cranshaws
• 1755 - 214
• 1791 - 164
• 1801 - 166
• 1811 - 186
• 1821 - 156
• 1831 - 136
• 1861 – 134
• 1871 - 142
• 1881 - 106

There was a noticeable drop in population between Dr Webster's survey of 1755 and the survey undertaken by the parish minister circa 1791 as part of Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland. The Minister, Rev. George Drummond, explained the drop in population as follows:
"The only reason that can be assigned for this diminution is the monopoly of farms. About 50 or 60 years ago there were above 16 farmers in the parish; the whole is now in the possession of 3 only." From the Statistical Account of Scotland compiled by Sir John Sinclair

Place Names

Place names reflect the languages spoken by the communities who first named the settlements, and can therefore tell us something about the turbulent history of Scotland. The majority of today's place names are anglicised versions of their earlier Gaelic, Norse or Scots names, and their original meanings are not always known with certainty. A few names reflect the lesser influences of other languages or are modern 19th century creations. Below is a list of some local names and their meanings left behind by the various settlers in this land:

Lauder - perhaps equivalent to lowther (O.Ir. lothur - canal or trench)
Leader Water - perhaps from W. lledwr - the spreader
Scarlaw - N. & D. skjaer cliff, rock ie rocky hill
Longformacus - church on the field (or slope) of Maccus
Caldra Farm - O.N. kald-r - cool (or G. call dobhar - hazel stream)
Cranshaws - heron woods
Ellemford
- ford by the slope
Abbey St Bathans - Abbey of St Bothan
Bowshiel Wood - wood by the cattle (herders') hut
Penmanshiel - shelter by the height with the great rock (or stone)
Pease Dean - O.E. paths and M.E. dene - glen, usually deep and wooded
Cockburnspath - path of Colbrand (O.E. personal name)

Geological Names:

Byrecleugh old photoBeck - Icelandic bekk-r Dan. back brook, stream
Burn - O.N. brunn-r  O.Sc burn stream or small river
Cleugh - G. cloch  O.Sc cleuch or ravine
Clints - Dan. & Sw. clint rocky promontary
Craig - G. creag crag, cliff
Dod - of Sc doddy bald; bre, round hill
Dyke - O.E dic ditch, But in Scotland since 16th century dyke =wall ie that thrown up by digging ditch
Gairy - G. garbh rough place, rocky hillside
Haugh - O.E halech flat meadow beside a river
Head - Sc. Heid highest part of valley or hill summit
Holm - O.N. holm-r meadow beside a river
Hope-  O.E. hop secluded valley
Knock - G. and Ir cnoc hill
Knowe - O.E. cnoll rounded hillock
Lane - G. lean slow moving winding stream
Larg - G learg side or slope of hill
Law - O.E. hlaw hill
Linn - G. linne waterfall, pool
Moss - W. maes stretch of boggy ground
Pen - O.W. pen hill
Ree - O.N. reethe O.Sc. reid sheep fold
Rhins - O.Ir. rinn G. roinn point of land
Rig - Dan. ryg  Sc. rig ridge of high ground
Shaw - Dan. skov O.N. skog-r small wood
Sike - O.E. sic small stream in marshy ground

 G. - Gaelic / Dan. - Danish / Ir. - Irish / O.Ir - Old Irish /O.E. - Old English / O.G. - Old Gaelic  / O.N. - Old Norse / Sc. - Lowland Scots / O.Sc. - Old Scots /
Sw. - Swedish / W. - Welsh

With thanks to the Southern Upland Way for place name information. More details can be found on their site for further names along the route.